Wednesday, March 30, 2011

G. K. Chesterton to Frances Blogg

"....I am looking over the sea and endeavouring to reckon up the estate I have to offer you. As far as I can make out my equipment for starting on a journey to fairyland consists of the following items.

1st. A Straw Hat. The oldest part of this admirable relic shows traces of pure Norman work. The vandalism of Cromwell's soldiers has left us little of the original hat-band.

2nd. A Walking Stick, very knobby and heavy: admirably fitted to break the head of any denizen of Suffolk who denies that you are the noblest of ladies, but of no other manifest use.

3rd. A copy of Walt Whitman's poems, once nearly given to Salter, but quite forgotten. It has his name in it still with an affectionate inscription from his sincere friend Gilbert Chesterton. I wonder if he will ever have it.

4th. A number of letters from a young lady, containing everything good and generous and loyal and holy and wise that isn't in Walt Whitman's poems.

5th. An unwieldy sort of a pocket knife, the blades mostly having an edge of a more varied and picturesque outline than is provided by the prosaic cutler. The chief element however is a thing 'to take stones out of a horse's hoof.' What a beautiful sensation of security it gives one to reflect that if one should ever have money enough to buy a horse and should happen to buy one and the horse should happen to have stone in his hoof -- that one is ready; one stands prepared, with a defiant smile!

6th. Passing from the last miracle of practical foresight, we come to a box of matches. Every now and then I strike one of these, because fire is beautiful and burns your fingers. Some people think this waste of matches: the same people who object to the building of Cathedrals.

7th. About three pounds in gold and silver, the remains of one of Mr. Unwin's bursts of affection: those explosions of spontaneous love for myself, which, such is the perfect order and harmony of his mind, occur at startingly exact intervals of time.

8th. A book of Children's Rhymes, in manuscript, called the 'Weather Book' about 3/4 finished, and destined for Mr. Nutt. I have been working at it fairly steadily, which I think jolly creditable under the circumstances. One can't put anything interesting in it. They'll understand those things when they grow up.

9th. A tennis racket -- nay, start not. It is a part of the new regime, and the only new and neat-looking thing in the Museum. We'll soon mellow it -- like the straw hat. My brother and I are teaching each other lawn tennis.

10th. A soul, hitherto idle and omnivorous but now happy enough to be ashamed of itself.

11th. A body, equally idle and quite equally omnivorous, absorbing tea, coffee, claret, sea-water, and swimming. I think, the sea being a convenient size.

12th. A Heart -- mislaid somewhere. And that is about all the property of which an inventory can be made at present. After all, my tastes are stoically simple. A straw hat, a stick, a box of matches and some of his own poetry. What more does man require?....

.....When we set up a house, darling (honeysuckle porch, yew clipt hedge, bees, poetry and eight shillings a week), I think you will have to do the shopping. Particularly at Felixstowe. There was a great and glorious man who said, 'Give us the luxuries of life and we will dispense with the necessities.' That I think would be a splendid motto to write (in letters of brown gold) over the porch of our hypothetical home. There will be a sofa for you, for example, but no chairs, for I prefer the floor. There will be a select store of chocolate-creams (to make you do the Carp with) and the rest will be bread and water. We will each retain a suit of evening dress for great occasions, and at other times clothe ourselves in the skins of wild beasts (how pretty you would look) which would fit your taste in furs and be economical.

I have sometimes thought it would be very fine to take an ordinary house, a very poor, commonplace house in West Kensington, say, and make it symbolic. Not artistic -- Heaven -- O Heaven forbid. My blood boils when I think of the affronts put by knock-kneed pictorial epicures on the strong, honest, ugly, patient shapes of necessary things: the brave old bones of life. There are aesthetic pattering prigs who can look on a saucepan without one tear of joy or sadness: mongrel decadents that can see no dignity in the honourable scars of a kettle. So they concentrate all their house decoration on coloured windows that nobody looks out of, and vases of lilies that everybody wishes out of the way. No: my idea (which is much cheaper) is to make a house really (allegoric) really explain its own essential meaning. Mystical or ancient sayings should be inscribed on every object, the more prosaic the object the better; and the more coarsely and rudely the inscription was traced the better. 'Hast thou sent the Rain upon the Earth?' should be inscribed on the Umbrella-Stand: perhaps on the Umbrella. 'Even the Hairs of your Head are all numbered' would give a tremendous significance to one's hairbrushes: the words about 'living water' would reveal the music and sanctity of the sink: while 'Our God is a consuming Fire' might be written over the kitchen-grate, to assist the mystic musings of the cook -- Shall we ever try that experiment, dearest. Perhaps not, for no words would be golden enough for the tools you had to touch: you would be beauty enough for one house..."

...By all means let us have bad things in our dwelling and make them good things. I shall offer no objection to your having an occasional dragon to dinner, or a penitent Griffin to sleep in the spare bed. The image of you taking a sunday school of little Devils is pleasing. They will look up, first in savage wonder, then in vague respect; they will see the most glorious and noble lady that ever lived since their prince tempted Eve, with a halo of hair and great heavenly eyes that seem to make the good at the heart of things almost too terribly simple and naked for the sons of flesh: and as they gaze, their tails will drop off, and their wings will sprout: and they will become Angels in six lessons....

I cannot profess to offer any elaborate explanation of your mother's disquiet but I admit it does not wholly surprise me. You see I happen to know one factor in the case, and one only, of which you are wholly ignorant. I know you ... I know one thing which has made me feel strange before your mother -- I know the value of what I take away. I feel (in a weird moment) like the Angel of Death.

You say you want to talk to me about death: my views about death are bright, brisk and entertaining. When Azrael takes a soul it may be to other and brighter worlds: like those whither you and I go together. The transformation called Death may be something as beautiful and dazzling as the transformation called Love. It may make the dead man 'happy,' just as your mother knows that you are happy. But none the less it is a transformation, and sad sometimes for those left behind. A mother whose child is dying can hardly believe that in the inscrutable Unknown there is anyone who can look to it as well as she. And if a mother cannot trust her child easily to God Almighty, shall I be so mean as to be angry because she cannot trust it easily to me? I tell you I have stood before your mother and felt like a thief. I know you are not going to part: neither physically, mentally, morally nor spiritually. But she sees a new element in your life, wholly from outside -- is it not natural, given her temperament, that you should find her perturbed? Oh, dearest, dearest Frances, let us always be very gentle to older people. Indeed, darling, it is not they who are the tyrants, but we. They may interrupt our building in the scaffolding stages: we turn their house upside down when it is their final home and rest. Your mother would certainly have worried if you had been engaged to the Archangel Michael (who, indeed, is bearing his disappointment very well): how much more when you are engaged to an aimless, tactless, reckless, unbrushed, strange-hatted, opinionated scarecrow who has suddenly walked into the vacant place. I could have prophesied her unrest: wait and she will calm down all right, dear. God comfort her: I dare not....

[At this point in the letter he is midway through a humorous telling of his life story, referring to himself in the third person.]

.....One pleasant Saturday afternoon [his friend] Lucian said to him, 'I am going to take you to see the Bloggs.' 'The what?' said the unhappy man. 'The Bloggs,' said the other, darkly. Naturally assuming that it was the name of a public-house he reluctantly followed his friend. He came to a small front-garden; if it was a public-house it was not a businesslike one. They raised the latch -- they rang the bell (if the bell was not in the close time just then). No flower in the pots winked. No brick grinned. No sign in Heaven or earth warned him. The birds sang on in the trees. He went in.

The first time he spent an evening at the Bloggs there was no one there. That is to say there was a worn but fiery little lady in a grey dress who didn't approve of 'catastrophic solutions of social problems.' That, he understood, was Mrs. Blogg. There was a long, blonde, smiling young person who seemed to think him quite off his head and who was addressed as Ethel. There were two people whose meaning and status he couldn't imagine, one of whom had a big nose and the other hadn't.... Lastly, there was a Juno-like creature in a tremendous hat who eyed him all the time half wildly, like a shying horse, because he said he was quite happy....

But the second time he went there he was plumped down on a sofa beside a being of whom he had a vague impression that brown hair grew at intervals all down her like a caterpillar. Once in the course of conversation she looked straight at him and he said to himself as plainly as if he had read it in a book: 'If I had anything to do with this girl I should go on my knees to her: if I spoke with her she would never deceive me: if I depended on her she would never deny me: if I loved her she would never play with me: if I trusted her she would never go back on me: if I remembered her she would never forget me. I may never see her again. Goodbye.' It was all said in a flash: but it was all said....

Two years, as they say in the playbills, is supposed to elapse. And here is the subject of this memoir sitting on a balcony above the sea. The time, evening. He is thinking of the whole bewildering record of which the foregoing is a brief outline: he sees how far he has gone wrong and how idle and wasteful and wicked he has often been: how miserably unfitted he is for what he is called upon to be. Let him now declare it and hereafter for ever hold his peace.

But there are four lamps of thanksgiving always before him. The first is for his creation out of the same earth with such a woman as you. The second is that he has not, with all his faults, 'gone after strange women.' You cannot think how a man's self restraint is rewarded in this. The third is that he has tried to love everything alive: a dim preparation for loving you. And the fourth is -- but no words can express that. Here ends my previous existence. Take it: it led me to you."

Saturday, February 20, 2010

The Business of Being Born.

I knew the minute I heard about this documentary that I had to see it, because I've always been intrigued by the process of birth. When I was about ten years old I saw a scene depicting natural childbirth on TV and it triggered a fascination that has lingered. I never remember being freaked out in later years, despite your stock movie portrayal of shrieking woman in hospital meeting up with nightmarishly long needle -- that earlier natural birth scene prevailed in my mind. It took longer for me to decide that I was excited to be a parent for the long haul or even care for a sweet, cooing infant -- let alone a grouchy, wailing one -- but I was always sure I wanted to have the experience of being pregnant and giving birth. (Need a surrogate mother? Womb for rent! Anyone?) So I was deliriously happy that I got to see the birth of my niece, even though my sister didn't especially want me there (sorry, Sis -- you know I was forced). And then later, my nephew as well. What an honor to be there when the little ones appeared. Humbling experiences, on many levels.

However, despite my fascination with the natural aspects of birth, I was sure that I would ultimately settle on a standard hyper-sanitary hospital birth: backless paper gown, stirrups, epidural, the works. I “knew” that my vision of birth was romantic and dangerous that if I didn't give birth in a hospital attended by a physician that even if things turned out fine I would feel that I had been irresponsible -- that I'd endangered my child to indulge my silly Earth Mother notions. But I kept indulging them on the sly. About twelve years ago I read the Pulitzer-winning history A Midwife's Tale, and marveled that an experienced Revolutionary-era midwife living in frontier conditions could attend 816 home deliveries with only 39 fatalities (14 stillbirths, 20 newborn deaths, 5 deaths of mothers), but concluded she must have been freakishly skilled. Clearly a standard modern hospital birth offered the greatest chance for safety, I repeatedly told myself. Several years ago when a friend started indoctrinating me about doulas and home births, stuff even wackier than my own thinking, I decided she must be a devil on my shoulder, feeding me more and more of what I wanted to believe, encouraging me to ignore the Known Truth. Later, after the birth of her first child (with doula, without drugs), she told me how she had felt strongly that the room of the birthing center had been transformed into a temporary religious sanctuary, and that someone should have been standing at the door interviewing potential intruders to ascertain whether they were worthy to enter the sacred space. I had heard many joyful birth accounts before, but nothing quite like that.

On the other hand, my own mother has no romantic notions about the epic ordeal of moving babies from Point A to Point B, which is not surprising given that I was her first and had such an abnormally large head that the doctors thought I was hydrocephalic. Thanks to me and my massive noodle, she needed a blood transfusion afterward, and even if 1976 had offered her any real birth alternatives, I would have thought her insane to do anything but what she did -- demand the drugs.

So like most of our peers my two siblings and I are epidural babies, and despite what rabid granolas would predict, we three are all highly intelligent (even if we do say so ourselves), well adjusted, and non-psychologically-scarred. And whether or not Mom was initially slighted by the circumstances of our entrances (the documentary notes that certain modern interventions interfere with early hormonally triggered mother-child bonding) she went on to be the warmest motherheart in this cold earth, and has only grown more remarkable as the years have ticked by. She's waaay better than your mom. Just accept it.*

So now we come to the who's-a-better-mommy wars: you don't have to linger long on a typical “mommy” blog before encountering this nasty phenomenon, as mothers beat each other over the head for decisions they don't approve of. We had a female neighbor when I was growing up who was also a dear friend of my mom's, and the only thing that that woman ever did that hurt Mom was occasionally boast that both of her children were born naturally, implying that she was a braver, better mother than the hosts of epidural mothers around her. (Of course, she was a six-foot-tall woman having average-weight babies, so.....) In spite of my secret views about birth I took Mom's side whenever that conversation resurfaced, and felt the ickyness of any woman using her childbirth experience as proof of her superior mothering ability. Not to mention that that lady's children were nothing particularly special -- I know because I was their regular babysitter for several years. They were good kids and I loved them, but neither were they exceptional. Surprise, surprise -- they turned out just like those of us who had “normal” mothers.

But having said that -- having stood on the side of those mothers who choose (or have chosen for them) medical interventions and defended those mothers against the delusional nature-will-never-betray-us kooks who see a forked tongue in the mouth of every OB/GYN -- I do have to say that I'm very glad that if/when I have babies it will be in a time when there are beginning to be real choices again in the US. When birthing is beginning to be seen as something intense and excruciating, but rarely dangerous when allowed to proceed normally under the watch of an experienced attendant who knows when interventions are wise and when they are not. When we are able to see how our childbirth culture has evolved and consciously choose the good developments and reject the evil developments (and I don't use the word “evil” lightly -- economic and legal considerations have trumped medical considerations in recent decades to give us a ONE IN THREE Caesarian birth rate in the United States and the second highest infant mortality rate in the developed world).

So I'm nearly done rambling. You should just see The Business of Being Born if you ever plan to have children, whether in the role of mother or father. It is balanced. It doesn't paint women who give birth in hospitals with drugs as lesser mothers, because if it had I would have laughed at the screen and turned it off. It just tells us some of our forgotten American cultural history, exposes some of our scientific vanity, gives some jarring facts, and asks some compelling questions. Not questions related to wowing the other mothers at the park with your harrowing tale of birthing 9-pound breech-presentation triplets in the woods without drugs, but rather questions related to how we can be conscious participants in the transformative process of birth rather than hit-and-run victims. As someone notes in the movie, all women are transformed by the process of birth whether or not they want to be, and that transformation can be joyful and empowering or devastating and scarring (both spiritually and physically).

Informed choice is a beautiful thing. And if I ultimately choose to go with the hardcore drugs, the first person who calls me a wimp is meeting up with the heavy end of my diaper bag.

* Note to future spouse: you can only PRAY that I'll eventually become my mother.

Saturday, November 28, 2009

You've been Googled.

I befriended Suzanne Stradling over a hilarious letter to the editor she sent in to the BYU newspaper many years ago. When I learned that my new roommate was the author of that much-beloved letter to the editor (which I had read long before I met her), I had no choice but to like her a whole lot.

We haven't kept in touch very well lately, but it would appear she's still in the business of writing to newspapers -- now primarily to the Washington Post. Here are her incisive thoughts on gay marriage, from the Washington Post website:

Gene Weingarten: A long, sane post from Suzanne Stradling on the subject of gay marriage and why I am not helping the situation:

For a long, long time, marriage was the way you got permission to have sex. Having sex outside of marriage was offensive to God, and so marriage had the secular effect of creating a legal child-rearing unit and the religious effect of allowing the devout to actually get some action. When Church and State are one, no problem. But society and religion have parted ways on the subject of appropriate sexual behavior, and that aspect of marriage-as-a-concept disappeared sometime last century in the broader American society. There are still significant religious communities where sex without marriage is considered a sin, however, and committed believers remain celibate until marriage.

Most of these orthodox religious communities don't accept a solely religious ceremony as a valid marriage. Having a civil law covenant is part of receiving the religious legitimization of sex. (There is an exception in some polygamist communities, but even there, a man may be required to legally marry a wife, divorcing her before legally marrying again, on the basis that you can ignore the divorce but the marriage is necessary.) Furthermore, in most of these communities, there is no actual religious ceremony required--in the sense that a couple married in front of the county clerk are regarded as being morally chaste when they engage in conjugal sex, while a couple married by a minister but without a legal license are committing the sin of fornication.

In communities where marriage is the one and only way to get God's imprimatur on sexual behavior, gay marriage causes problems of logic. If God hasn't accepted or has forbidden gay marriage (a belief of most orthodox religious communities), then one presumes that a marriage of two men does not carry the same legitimizing religious effect as the marriage of a man and a woman.

You can argue that believing this in the first place is bigotry and perhaps for some it is. But there are plenty of religious people who believe that, while they have been instructed by Spirit or grace to follow certain principles, those people who haven't received the same instructions or made the same commitments are not bound by the same rules. So gay sex (or premarital sex) is forbidden in the believer but not a reason to condemn anyone else. Since it's hard to live in a heterogeneous society without knowing and liking lots of people who have different values and beliefs, I suspect that many or most of the people who govern their own lives by strict religious rules are actually pretty laid back about everyone else's version of decent human behavior.

So why object to gay marriage for others? Essentially, the state has become the only legitimate sponsor of a religious sacrament. Significantly reworking or expanding the definition of marriage calls into question the sacramental nature of the resulting civil act.

Opposition to gay marriage is based in concern about the effect gay marriage would have on the religious validity of heterosexual civil ceremonies. Sound bizarre? Well, yes, making the government the vehicle of something that religiously important IS bizarre. What we have here is the intersection of deeply held religious belief and the obligation of the government to treat all its citizens fairly.

Given the immense religious importance attached to marriage by the religiously orthodox (how would you like to spend years celibate?), it's unfair to call them bigots for questioning the theological effect of a reorganization of marriage. (And, given the celibacy thing, you can even understand if they're a little cranky about it.) If the state solemnizes marriages that fall outside of the religious requirement of marriage, then what happens to the power of the state to act in loco dei and legitimize sex? Does it lose its effect altogether?

This is why you have people who are fine with a gay equivalent of marriage--"so long as it's called something else." The idea is to protect the power of divine sanction for people whose concept of marriage requires that sanction.

The "Save Traditional Marriage!" campaigns have simply failed to point out that the traditional marriage they are saving is one not actually entered into by most heterosexual couples. It's VERY traditional marriage, in which neither partner has sex before or outside the marriage bond. Admittedly, this translates poorly to focus groups. Most people support marriage, but find unmarried celibacy unappealing. But the religious don't want everyone to be forced into their idea of marriage, they just want the original religious significance of the ceremony preserved for those who value it--not an unreasonable request, given that the state originally adopted, supported and modified religious marriage for its own ends.

Here we actually have a nice moment of the religious community getting worked up about a legitimate theological question. Can anyone really doubt that the greatest threat to this very traditional idea of marriage is heterosexual sex outside of marriage? But there is no movement to ban Britney and K-Fed, or to recriminalize gay sex or premarital sex. The focus really is on a genuine threat to the theological concept and treatment of marriage within a religious community.

And, yes, the psycho guy who takes "God hates fags" signs to funerals probably also supports banning gay marriage. But that doesn't tar everyone with his viewpoint, any more than the fact that Saddam Hussein also wants the U.S. to get out of Iraq makes you a deposed ex-dictator. (If I were writing to the ex-Czar of the Style Invitational, now . . . .)

The question is, of course, what ought to be done? The government is and should be in the business of providing equal rights to all its citizens. It should not be in the business of watering down religious ceremonies. I would like to see a complete break between the civil and religious marriage ceremonies (as in France, where marriage always takes place at City Hall and is followed by the religious ceremony of choice, if desired.) At least a few religions have found it necessary to institute additional religious requirements in order to obtain a divorce, so coming up with something for marriage ought not tax their abilities. The idea of making the government come up with marriage-plus-plus (a la covenant marriage) for the devout is idiotic.

Since most orthodox religious communities are, by their nature, conservative, instituting an entire new set of marriage rules is much less desireable than maintaining the status quo. Yet the status quo is going, like it or not, and, as the matter is a theological one, it ought to move to that arena to be resolved. It would also save us all the inanities of clueless politicians posturing to their base without any comprehension of the issues in question.

I genuinely believe that a subtantial number of the people against gay marriage are not bigots. But I should probably add that, for true "non-bigot" cred, they have to believe and observe restrictive religious rules--making the question about them, not about gay people. And there are a substantial number of people in the discussion who are bigots, or whose bigotry fuels a broader desire to "make a statement" about gays or otherwise squash any government support of alternative sexual lifestyle.

So, discussion question: are there gay people who have religious beliefs preventing gay sex outside of marriage but sanctioning it within? The entire argument I've made presupposes no overlap between the gay people who wish to marry and the religious people who place a very high value on marriage-as-sanction. Am I wrong?

Monday, February 16, 2009

More on the Hill v. Thatcher case.

I've read through the case a couple times and this is what I gather happened:

Sometime in 1842, a case between Leroy Hill and Hezekiah Thatcher ended in Thatcher being awarded a $225 judgment by the court (or $450? there are two different amounts given). Hill claimed that at the time of the judgment Thatcher told Hill that he didn't have to pay the amount immediately and gave him until January 1, 1943 to pay. At that time Hill gave Thatcher a promissory note for $250 that he had not yet collected from a third party and told him that if he hadn't paid Thatcher the full amount of the judgment by January 1, 1943, Thatcher could collect on the note (from that third party) for payment of Hill's debt. However, at some point before January 14, 1943 the sheriff seized some of Hill's property for the purpose of paying the judgment (I can't tell if this was at Thatcher's request or what). Hill then became worried that if his land was sold and the judgment paid to Thatcher by those means, Thatcher would still cash in the promissory note rather than returning it to Hill. (Mr. Hill! How dare you question my ancestor's integrity!) This case was to settle this question and ease Hill's mind. Lincoln was the lawyer hired by Hill.

Another interesting thing I dug up: just nine days before this case was filed Joseph Smith had been brought to that same court house (Sangamon District Circuit Court in Springfield) for a trial to determine if he should be shipped back to Missouri to face charges of murder conspiracy for the attempted assassination of Governor Boggs. Hezekiah was not yet a Mormon in January 1843, but was baptized later that year, in December. Everyone in Illinois knew about Mormons, but wouldn't it be interesting to know what, if any, role the Smith trial in Springfield had in exposing Hezekiah and his family to the details of Mormonism? Warming them up to conversion? I wonder if he saw Joseph Smith in Springfield during that time, or even was present for the trial? (We know that Mary Todd Lincoln was present at the trial; it was a big news story in Springfield.) In the complaint drawn up by Lincoln on January 14, 1943 Leroy Hill said that part of the reason for his anxiousness about settling accounts with Hezekiah was that he thought Hezekiah was thinking of leaving the state. Why would he think that? Was Hezekiah already showing LDS sympathies and therefore assumed to be westward-bound? Hmmmmm.......

Anyway, I did my best to transcribe that first document in the case file, the only one that is in Lincoln's handwriting (just the first two and a half pages are in his writing). I may transcribe the other documents in the file if family members express an interest.

To the Honorable the Judge of the Sangamon Circuit court in chancery sitting--

Humbly complaining showeth unto your Honor your orator Leroy L. Hill that some time previous to the month of November last one Hezekiah Thatcher obtained three judgements against your orator before Thomas Moffett one of the Justices of the Peace for said county amounting together including cost to about two hundred and twentyfive dollars; that executions issued on said judgements, when in the month of November aforesaid, it was agreed by and between said Thatcher and your orator that said executions should be staid until the first day of January then next, being the now present month, in consideration of which your orator placed in said Thatcher’s hands a certain promissory note for something more than two hundred and fifty dollars principal and interest thereon accrued, which note was executed by James R. Gray payable to your orator, and assigned by your orator to Robert McCondy, and by McCondy to said Thatcher -- The note at the time it was so passed to said Thatcher was the property of your orator and was delivered to him on the express condition that he was to collect the amount of it if he could do so before the said first of January, and apply sufficient of it to the discharge of said judgements and cost and pay the overplus to your orator; but if he could not so collect it before said first of January, he was to return the note to your orator, and to have his execution in force against your orator’s property. Whether said Thatcher as collected said note your orator does not know, but he supposes he has not -- Your orator further states that said Thatcher has procured his said executions to be levied on your orator’s property by one one James ?Newby a constable of said county who has the said ??? to be sold on Monday the sixteenth instant, and that your orator has, since said levy and advertisement, demanded said note of said Thatcher, but that said Thatcher refuses to deliver the same up to him -- Your orator further states that said Thatcher as no real estate, as your orator believes, in this state, and that your orator is informed and believes said Thatcher contemplates removing from the state -- Your orator therefore fears that said judgements by execution as foresaid, and at the same time, either collect said note, or sell and transfer it, so that your orator will be defrauded out of said note entirely -- Your orator therefore prays that said Thatcher and Gray be made defendants to this Bill; that the People’s ?court of ?Subpoena issue for them that they answer etc, and that the said Thatcher, Moffett, and Neale be enjoined and restrained from further proceeding towards the collection of said executions; that said Thatcher be enjoined and restrained from selling, assigning, or otherwise transferring said note and that said Gray be enjoined, and restrained from paying said note to any person other than said Thatcher or your orator until the further order of this court -- and that your Honor will grant such other and further relief as equity may require, and as is in duty bound etc.

Leroy L. Hill

Sworn and subscribed before me this 14th day of January 1843

Samuel H. Treat Judge ??

The clerk of the Sangamon Circuit Court will ?upon the complainant Hill entering into hand, with Robert McCondy as ?recently in the penalty of $450 payable to the said Hezekiah Thatcher and conditioned as the law directs, will issue an issue an injunction as prayed for in the forgoing bill of complaint.

January 14th 1843
Samuel H. Treat
Judge ???

The preceding posting is supplemental to a related posting at my other blog.